Archive for the 'blood group' Category

24
Jul
12

Cloning Rh Negative Blood

If you search the web on “rh negative blood cloning” or some variation thereof, many sites will come up and you’ll find a reference to Rh Negative blood not being able to be cloned.  For the most part, these websites don’t provide a source for that statement. 

In doing that search now in 2012, I’m amazed by the lack of current information.  Most of the articles that do come up are from the 1990’s.  In 1997 sciencenews.org said the following:

http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arc97/1_11_97/bob1.htm

Any technology that would convert blood to a true universal donor type must take another characteristic, Rh factor, into account. A cell surface protein first discovered in the blood of Rhesus monkeys, the Rh factor can provoke an immune reaction in people whose blood doesn’t normally carry it. People who have the protein on their red blood cells are deemed Rh-positive; those who don’t are Rh-negative.

Rh incompatibility is less of a problem than ABO incompatibility, says Klein. A majority of people in the United States, about 84 percent, have Rh-positive blood.

Moreover, an Rh-negative person can withstand one accidental transfusion of Rh-positive blood because the Rh-negative person doesn’t develop anti-Rh antibodies until 3 or 4 months later, Klein says. “The second transfusion, after they already have that antibody they made as a result of the first transfusion, could be very serious.” An Rh-negative woman who develops antibodies from bearing an Rh-positive child faces that risk if she conceives a second Rh-positive child or receives an Rh-positive blood transfusion.

Several labs have cloned the Rh factor, Goldstein says, but no one fully understands its three-dimensional structure. Therefore, researchers are only beginning to explore techniques for Rh conversion. If researchers can identify which part of the protein stimulates the immune response, then perhaps they can alter that portion to make the blood cell effectively Rh-negative. Eventually they want to produce type O, Rh-negative blood–the kind any person can receive without fear.

So, supposedly, in 1997, Rh positive blood was being cloned but not Rh negative blood.  I can find no information that indicates that in the intervening years Rh negative blood has been successfully cloned.  However, I did find the following fairly recent article about “pharming” or genetically engineered Rh negative blood.  I read into this that pharming is being attempted because Rh negative blood cannot be cloned.  Please see the following taken from the UK’s Daily Mail:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1293361/Scientists-develop-fake-genetically-engineered-blood-use-battlefield.html

“American scientists have developed ‘artificial’ blood that could soon be used to treat wounded soldiers in battle.

The genetically-engineered blood is created by  taking cells from umbilical cords and using a machine to mimic the way bone marrow works to produce mass quantities of usable units of red blood cells.

Known as ‘blood pharming’ the programme was launched in 2008 by the Pentagon’s experimental arm, Darpa, to create blood to treat soldiers in far-flung battlefields.

The firm Arteriocyte, which received $1.95 million for the project, has now sent off its first shipment of O-negative blood to the food and drugs watchdog in the US, the FDA

The blood is made by using hematopoietic cells taken from umbilical cords in a process called ‘pharming’ – using genetically engineered plants or animals to create mass quantities of useful substances.

One umbilical cord can be turned into around 20 units of usable blood. A wounded soldier in the field will require an average of six units during treatment.

Blood cells produced using this method are ‘functionally indistinguishable from red blood cells in healthy circulation’, the company claims.

‘We’re basically mimicking bone marrow in a lab environment,’ Arteriocyte boss Don Brown told Wired magazine.

‘Our model works, but we need to extrapolate our production abilities to make scale.’

If approved it could revolutionise battlefields where a shortage of blood donors can hamper treatment of wounded soldiers.

The process of giving transfusions in war zones is also made more difficult because donated blood has to be transported long distance before it reaches the field hospitals where it is urgently needed

Some blood is already 21 days old before it reaches patients, meaning it only has around a week-long shelf-life before it must be discarded. There are increased risks of infection or organ failure if blood is too old.

Mr Brown said: ‘Until now, the military’s strategy has mainly been contained to basically using stale blood,’

‘And they’ll set up mobile blood banks in a war zone, but even every troop rolling up their sleeve might not be enough when you’ve got a crisis with dozens or more injuries.’

Human trials are not likely until 2013, but the firm predicts the ‘pharmed’ blood could be used by the military within five years if the Pentagon calls for it sooner.

A unit of blood is around a pint and the human body contains between eight and ten pints of blood in total.

Currently, each unit made by Arteriocyte costs $5,000 to produce. If approved, the firm expects to bring this down to around $1,000 per unit by scaling up the production process.

As well as being needed by the military, ‘pharmed’ blood could also be used in hospitals to make up for shortfalls in blood donations if it is approved.

The ‘pharmed’ blood is type O negative which is the most sought after variation because it can be used with any patient, regardless of their own blood type.

Last month the US Red Cross issued an urgent appeal for blood donors to come forward after it said that its supply of O Negative blood was hitting ‘critically low levels.”

If anyone has more info on this subject they’d like to share, please do!  Thanks

 

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05
Jun
11

The Gods of Eden

“The Gods of Eden” by William Bramley, Copyrights 1989 and 1990, Harper Collins, is, in my opinion, a magnificant book.  The back cover reads “They Came to Earth Millions of Years Ago to Spread the Poison of Hatred, War and Catastrophe…They Are With Us Still…In this remarkable, shocking and absolutely compelling work, Bramley presents disturbing evidence of an alien presence on Earth – extraterrestrial visitors who have conspired to dominate Humankind through violence and chaos since the beginning of time … a conspiracy which continues to this very day.”

In the 453 pages (not including extensive notes and index) Bramley takes you through history, from the original garden of Eden story through 1989 (when the book was published) giving you details and explanations of what really happened, why and how.    He presents history in an entirely new light.  In addition to discussing the creation of humankind by extraterrestrials as a slave race, he also writes about the world’s major religions, governments, monetary systems, plagues (caused by extraterrestrials) and wars plus much, much more.

I had hoped to find something about Rh negative blood referenced within the pages, but the only mention of blood referred to the royal “blue blood”:

“The Sumerians state that the first human kings on Earth were the offspring of Custodial rulers (ancient astronauts) who mated with human women.  Those matings entitled the half-human offspring to become early monarchs on Earth.  Thus was born the idea of “royal blood” and the perceived importance of maintaining proper royal “breeding” to ensure continued purity of the human royal blood line.  Interestingly, some ancient Custodial “gods” were depicted as either blue-skinned or blue-blooded:  this gave us the idea (and some say the reality) of royal “blue bloods”.  Aristocratic breeding practices have persisted through history and remain important to some royalty even today.  Human “blue bloods” appear to be the prize Hereford cows of Earth’s livestock race, Homo sapiens.”

Mr. Bramley focuses on these “Custodial” extraterrestrial rulers who are manipulative (to put it kindly).  He doesn’t mention any benevolent group  out there in the cosmos wanting to come to our aid and help us battle the “Custodians”.  Could that be it?  Could there just be these masters who have kept us ignorant slaves?   And if so, is Rh negative blood evidence of them?  Nothing more.

There is much more to discuss from this book which I will do in future blogs.  If you have not as yet read this book, I urge you to do so.  And if you have already  read it, I welcome your comments. 

More to come on “The Gods of Eden”…

13
Jan
11

Fingerprints and Rh Negative Blood

I’ve wondered for a while about any link between fingerprints and blood group.  I’ve just now found a site that addresses this issue to some extent:    http://medind.nic.in/jal/t04/i1/jalt04i1p6.pdf

This was a 2004 study and I have a feeling more info might be forthcoming on this subject.  Following has been copied from this site, but I strongly recommend you take a look at the entire PDF article:

“Finger print (dactylography / dermatoglyphic) is considered as the best tool of identification. This study was carried out in 2000-2001 on 300 students of different ABA blood groups of Medical College, Ajmer with two objectives, viz. (a) To study distribution of finger print pattern among the subjects having different ABO and Rh blood group and (b) Correlate any relation between their characters and blood groups. Male: female ratio was 2.4:1. Majority of the subjects (38.33%) in the study were of blood group A followed by blood group B, A and AB of whom 95.67% were Rh-positive. The general distribution of pattern of finger print showed high frequency (51.87%) of loops whereas whorls were moderate (35.83%) and arches were least (12.30%) in frequency. Almost same order was noticed in both Rh-positive and Rhnegative individuals or A, B, AB and O blood groups. Blood group A showed more loops (Rh +ve 54.26%, Rh -ve 60%) while, blood group AB had more whorls (Rh +ve 43.34%, Rh -ve60%). The study suggests an association between finger print pattern and blood group. The distribution of different pattern of finger prints in individual fingers also showed some peculiarities in relation to blood group. The total finger ridge count (TFRC) was significantly greater in blood group B.”